Apostrophes have uses other than to show possession (see Apostrophail!). The other main use is in a contraction to show where letters are missing. In that case, the apostrophe is placed exactly where the letters are removed and no period is used unless the word is at the end of a sentence.
- you’re = you are
- don’t = do not
- he’ll = he will
Do remember to respect a company’s preference when they use an apostrophe in their brand name, i.e., Cap’n Crunch, Dunkin’ Donuts.
There is even a proper format for the apostrophe in a contraction. You should use the single closing quotation mark NOT the single opening quotation mark. When the apostrophe is at the beginning of a word, you will probably get the single opening quotation mark as you type. To remedy that, type both the opening and closing single quotation mark and delete the opening mark. This, of course, isn’t a problem if you use the straight quotation marks, only if you use the curly quotation marks.
Another area of confusion is decades. To correctly type a decade contraction, it is ’80s not 80’s. The apostrophe represents that the “19” is missing from “1980s” and not that the 1980s owned something. Using “80’s” to represent that decade is incorrect.
Remember, however, that in the legal field, contractions are not frequently used. Contractions are used in less formal writing, which doesn’t often happen in a law firm. But if you must use a contraction, please use the apostrophe correctly.
I think the number one all time grammar fail is the apostrophe. It is not a punctuation mark for making words plural (more than one of something), it is a mark to show possession (ownership of something) or to show where letters are missing in a contraction (such as “don’t”). There is an easy test I found to make it a little easier to determine if something needs an apostrophe for possession:
- Look for the possible possessive phrase:
– the man[‘s] desk
– desk of the man
- Examine the base ownership word to determine who owns the thing (here “man”). The most important thing is not to change the spelling of a singular noun just to make it possessive. For instance, the man (one man) is still the owner of the desk. Ownership doesn’t magically make the desk belong to more than one man. It would be the “man’s desk” not the “men’s desk.”
- Does the base word showing ownership end with an s sound?
- If it does not end in an s sound, add an apostrophe and s:
– the man’s desk
- If the ownership word does end in an s sound, you usually add only an apostrophe:
UNLESS you actually hear the s sound when you say it, then you should add an apostrophe and s
That is a really important “unless” and one that is controversial. Say it out loud if necessary. Again, however, while it may be correct under one reference source, the person you are working for may not like it that way. Do it the way they want it so you can stay employed, but keep fighting the fight and sharing your resources so that hopefully one day they will come over to your way of thinking (or just get tired of listening to you go on and on about it – which is what I think happens in my case more than I’d like to admit).
Proper names are sometimes the most difficult. I once worked with someone with the last name “Andrews” and actually saw (with my own eyes) how people (and more than one) would try to make it possessive by adding the apostrophe before the s – Andrew’s. Never, ever change the spelling of someone’s name before you make it plural or possessive. Start with the name and then do what you need to do to it. Just remember that is one thing that is sacred to everyone – their own name.
Apostrophes really are not as difficult as they seem to be when you see how often they are used incorrectly. It is just something that takes thinking about to get right. Take the time to think about it and you are a step ahead of most people.
I want to take just a minute to thank you all for the terrific response to my first blog posts. I was really worried about starting this blog because I knew my audience would be at least as crazy about good grammar as I am, so I read, re-read, edited, re-edited, and procrastinated posting because I was worried that I had missed errors and would be publicly called out on it. I did miss errors, but people were really nice about it, taught me a thing or two I didn’t know, and I was able to correct the errors without public humiliation. I did tell you I’m not an expert and I’m not. My hope is that I am able to impart some good tips to help you be just a little bit better. If that happens, I feel like I have accomplished what I set out to do and actually made a difference – errors and all.